Hardware-based security for high-level protection.

XIP1103H: AES256-CTR

Advanced Encryption Standard (256-bit key), Counter Mode IP Core


Introduction

XIP1103H from Xiphera is a high-speed Intellectual Property (IP) core implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) in Counter Mode (CTR).

The Counter mode of operation effectively turns a block cipher into a stream cipher, and provides a number of advantages from an implementation point of view. These include the ability to use the same key expansion functionality and datapath for both encryption and decryption, and the possibility to parallelize the FPGA-based implementation by unrolling and pipelining.

XIP1103H has been designed for easy integration with FPGA- and ASIC-based designs in a vendor-agnostic design methodology, and the functionality of XIP1103H does not rely on any FPGA manufacturer-specific features.

Key features

  • Moderate resource requirements: The entire XIP1103H requires less than 14000 Adaptive Lookup Modules (ALMs) (Intel® Cyclone® V), and does not require any multipliers or DSPBlocks [1].
  • Performance: Despite its moderate size, XIP1103H achieves a throughput in the tens of Gbps range, for example 100+ Gbps in Xilinx® Virtex® UltraScale+™ FPGA family.
  • Standard Compliance: XIP1103H is fully compliant with both the Advanced Encryption Algorithm (AES) standard, as well as with the Counter Mode (CTR) standard.
  • 128-bit and 256-bit Interfaces ease the integration of XIP1103H with other FPGA logic and/or control software.

Functionality

XIP1103H encrypts [2] the incoming 128 bits long plaintext blocks by XORing (exclusive-OR)them with the encrypted successive values of a counter. The counter is initialized with a 128 bits long initialization vector [3], which is then incremented by one after each encryption with the same secret key.

XIP1103H is a high-speed version of the Counter mode of operation, and due to the full unrolling of the AES datapath can output a 128 bits long ciphertext block every clock cycle. The key expansion — which is identical for both encryption and decryption operation — is performed on-the-fly and if the same key is used for successive plaintext blocks does not affect the throughput or latency of XIP1103H.


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Block diagram

Figure 1: Internal high-level block diagram of XIP1103H, encryption mode

Figure 1: Internal high-level block diagram of XIP1103H, encryption mode.

Footnotes

[1] The AES S-boxes can be implemented either in FPGA logic or internal memory blocks depending on the customer’s preference.

[2] The operation is identical in the decryption direction, where the only difference is decrypting ciphertext into plaintext.

[3] The initialization vector consists of a 32 bits long nonce, and a 96 bits long initial value.


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